*The first part of this piece published last week explained the historical significance of how the force of language brought different Arabs together.
By Patrick Dele Cole
MOHAMMED had found the two keys of unity – the discipline of the worshippers and their shared allegiance. But the greatest key of all was Mohammed’s power over language – the special oratorical high Arabic. In Mohammed’s hands the tongue was inspired via an angel by God who had chosen Mohammed as his Prophet – Noble Messenger, forging the Arabs into temporary unity.
This unity was doomed, for he himself prophesied that the Arabs would break into 73 sects – that is the reality of disunity because the Arabs were, according to Mohammed, “the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy and the least to know the laws of Allah”(You would find similar statements from the Prophets about Jews in the Bible).
Arabs also had a raiding ethos, whose predatory skills were merged into the spirit of the believers. They were orators and predators with a unique ethnic self-awareness with which they launched a tsunami of physical expansion, probably unequalled since the beginning of time. Poetry made Arabs morally and spiritually a nation before Mohammed. It is the supreme example in human history of how language can win dominance. In less than 100 years, the Arabs built an empire larger than the Roman Empire – founding and binding the enduring cultural empire of Islam.
Hitler had such power as did Trump. The lexicon of the Arabs is embarrassingly rich. It has 80 words for money, two hundred words for beard, five hundred words for lion, eight hundred words for sword, and one thousand words for camel. There are 50 Arabic dialects, eight of which are foreign languages. Charles de Gaulle was reputed to have wondered and despaired on how anyone can govern a people who produce 243 different kinds of cheeses: or a people who have 1,000 words for camels!!
Turks, who were the neighbours of the Arabs, were not just another kind of non-Arab but were anti-Arab, with loud warnings against Arabs who feared that Turks would eventually ruin them. The Arabs believed and feared nothing more than that their slaves, i.e. the (Turks), “with their small eyes and broad faces like hammered shield”, shall own them.
The Turks in fact would dominate Arabdom for the next 1,000 years. Slavery for Arabs was always a feature to exploit great tracks of land with cheap labour/manpower and garnering profits. With Zan – slaves became slave masters buying and selling free born Arabs for few pennies, using female descendants of Mohammed as concubines and making them work as maids. The Arabs revolted as a unified unit, reunited and returned the Turks to slavery.
As for the Persians, they enjoyed a special love-hate relationship with Arabs. At one stage three Persian princesses married the three most prominent Arab princes. They dominated male Persians and supposedly submissive Arab princes. Although Mohammed preached equality – “nor is any Arab superior to any non-Arab except in piety”. In reality, there was not equal treatment between the Arabs and Persia and Turkey.
Al Jahiz is not the noble scion of some ancient Arabic tribe but the grandson of a Black slave of Basra. He became the defender of Arab orthodoxy in the dispute with the shuubiyyah. The Book of the Stick – the stick is the tool of the Arab orators and philosophers and their interminable disputations, similar to the disputations of the Greek philosophers; the stick was also the symbol of Kafur, the Black eunuch slave who seized the throne of Egypt.
As an Arab orator put Kafur’s exploits: “Even in well hung, well-heeled White man, the sense of gratitude soon pails; what thanks can be expected from the Black man with balls?” The Arabs had a fine sense of history as well as collecting and preserving knowledge. Al Akims library had 400,000 volumes, more than the then British museum 400 years later. There are 4000 undoubtable Arabic loan words in Spanish. In bull fight the matador performs; the crowd shouts “oleh”. In Arabic the mata is: ”to die”; oleh is –”praise Allah”.
Ala Sahid ibn Abdaid had 400 camels to move his library of manuscripts. European hospitals grew from Arabic ones. Words like rice, lemons, sugarcane, new textiles and dye stuffs were basically Arabic. English has over 2000 words of Arabic origin, including cheque(sakk), carafe (ghiraf), alcohol (al-kuhl), coffee (qahwah, which also means wine), sherbet (sorber), chiffon (shiff), mohair siket (mukhayyar), mawsili (cloth from Mosul), satin (zayhumi from citong), jacket (shakkah), mutrah mat: tallyho – ta’ali hun.
The Abssid and the birth of writing on paper in their singular pursuit of knowledge typifies the Arabs thirst for knowledge. That thirst can be broken into three stages. Stage 1 was the copying of the Quran and all the teachings that related to it. Stage 2 was more writing in keeping with the spread and the need to run an empire in the language of the rulers. Thereafter the army of copiers moved as the Arabic empires grew.
Stage 3, i.e. from expensive parchment and papyrus to paper: this was as fundamental a change as the leap from paper to computer screens in the 21st century. Paper came from China around 75AD when Arabs captured some Chinese during the rule of Abassid Caliph Al-Muman, AlRashid. With the conquest of the Berbers in North Africa, Arabic became pidginised. Iraq was the seat of Arabic learning where Arabic scholars gathered, including the grandfather of Mohammed’s most distinguished biographer, Tsaniq ibn Ziyad, who raided a church in Iraq, enslaved an Arab Christian – Nusayr, a slave who had bought his freedom.
During that time slaves could buy their freedom and were freemen, but dependent (mawla) of the Unar Yqad clan. Musa ibn Nusayr was a mawla by heritage. Musa led the forces that raided across North Africa, gathering so many Berbers that the forces could hardly be called Arab anymore. Musa led thousands to feed, pay and provide women for bed, boat and booty. Musa governed North Africa.
He sent a force across the straits of the Mediterranean Spain led by his Berbers lieutenant, Tariq ibn Ziyard, to wrest the peninsular from the Visigoths in 711. On his way Tariq gave his name to the shark fin mountain jutting out of the sea. Jaba Tariq was later gabled by Spanish tongue to Gibraltar. Arab rule in Spain would last for 800 years.
Arabic itself borrowed from others: translated all known works into Arabic chemistry from Greek, Coptic and Syriac, Persian and Sans Krit. They learnt new sciences medicine, botany, pharmacology, astronomy, astrology, geography, geometry, engineering, music, mathematics and more; thereby enriching Arabic and world knowledge. Arabic adopted the cipher, the figure o, zero – (only Sankrit in India had it). The Arabs introduced zero in the world resulting in a cataclysmic progress in knowledge.
Moreover Arabic added more of their own knowledge to knowledge, for example medicine, trigonometry, mathematics, astronomy. Alcohol, algebra, and algorithm were all of Arabic origin. At last Arabic was written in plain prose: no longer only the stylised phonetics because their empire needed normal prose. There is a historical theory that if it were not for the Arabs, Europeans would have had no Renaissance. Put differently, the Abbassid rulers were themselves princes of the Renaissance of which the later European episode was a continuation after a long delay period.
26. Islam/Arabism came to Africa via Berbers of North Africa, down into the Sahara and across it to Nigeria and other West Africa countries.
When blacks ask the West for reparation, why do they not ask the Arabs for the same? The latter having a history of black exploitation starting from 600AD i.e. if the first slaves arrived in the US in 1619; black slaves have been in Arab lands and empire and other Arab nations before 600AD.
27. Reconstructing Arab society on a democratic political basis and reconciling Islam and the modern world remain the greatest tasks confronting the contemporary generation.
28. To say western education is haram is similar for the Pope to say Latin is haram, anathema – a language that suffices every pore of Catholicism.
Knowledge is universal: and is studied as such. The study of Islam trends over all the information above and more; it includes Medicine, Mathematics, and Algorithms etc. So is the study of Chemistry. This is not to say that there is no ideological or spiritual difference between religions.
The positioning of Islam and Christianity is Political, not spiritual. People use religion for political gains. But fundamentally all religion inspires the spirit; reaches out to others because the journey to spiritual bliss is the same no matter which religion you espouse. More fundamentally, knowledge is one: the more you learn, the more you know.
Moslem leaders must appreciate the Universality of Knowledge. It is not a steak you can cut up and divide: this is good knowledge, this is bad knowledge. In fact the very process of acquiring knowledge does overwhelm those unhelpful distractions of western or Islamic knowledge. They are not polar opposites.
They are inextricably intertwined. Our Moslem, Christian, atheist leaders know this. To the purveyors of Islamic hate in Boko Haram, Moslem clerics must open their eyes to the contribution of Arabic knowledge in all its myriad forms to the body of human knowledge. No amount of hatred could possibly justify the seizing of school boys and girls from school – what is that supposed to prove? That Islam is an uneducated religion? Incidentally in Saudi Arabia no woman who is below 18 years can marry.
29. Islam Arabism is not a clog of progress and development as simply been demonstrated by fantastic strides made in Abu Dhabi, Qatar, even Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Indonesia. When Abu Dhabi started their incredible transformation they had nothing except the will to succeed and dig itself out of poverty. Nigeria has many more resources but could, with benefit, borrow the will to succeed, coupled with a readable plan to do so – getting our people, all our people out from the trough of debilitating poverty and iconoclast analogous backwardness.
30. The economy of Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Kuwait-work. They are successful, they invite foreigners to invest in their countries, their economy is buoyant; Jews, Christians and Muslims flock there. Each of these groups work with the others to keep the economy buoyant. Switzerland is a Christian country, having one of the highest standards of living, the economy is booming. Religion has nothing to do with the economic power Switzerland has become.
31. Israel is a successful economic and military power; it is also the IT headquarters of the world producing more startup operation companies than any other. This was achieved without the admittedly fractious religious underbelly disrupting its meteoric impressive growth. Economically Nigeria has all the conditions to be economically successful but it is held back by religious primitivism; Some Archbishop and some Islamic cleric will find some reason to stop a clear economic advantage. Religion must not be used to slow or impede Nigeria’s march towards its destiny.
32. Nigeria has a Space Agency. It cannot fly a drone from the international airport to local airport. United Arab Emirate (UAE) has a Space Agency and their rockets, piloted by a woman has just flown round the planet Mars. Both countries are massive Islamic countries. Pakistan, Malaysia, India have put men in Space. Malaysia is progressing. Pakistan has the nuclear weapons. All these countries have cows and camels but someone political discourse and progress and development move on as a fast chip while we regress to cow head mentality. We are better than this. At least we ought to be.
33. Let’s surprise ourselves by choosing these countries as our models. If Nigeria had 5 or 6 cities like Dubai, then we would have left poverty behind and hopefully a nativist religiosity which is the chain and ball holding us back.
34. But to get to be Switzerland, Dubai, Israel, we must really badly want to do this. That decision has consequences: it implies we are willing to change our ways.